Antimicrobials in Food 4th Edition [Book]

Posted on:July 6, 2020

As written in the Preface of the 4th edition of Antimicrobials in Food, “It has been nearly 15 years since the publication of the 3rd edition of Antimicrobials in Food, an excellent reference for the food microbiologist, food safety specialist, industrial researcher, and student alike… This 4th edition comes about in a time of great change within the food industry, driven in large part by consumer purchasing trends demanding foods with fewer traditional additives, including antimicrobials, as well as foods processed so as to retain a greater fresh-like character during the food’s shelf-life.

Compared to 2005, consumer purchase trends are apparently more influenced by numerous considerations, including budgetary restrictions, labeling claims regarding whether a food is “Clean,” “Natural,” “Organic,” “Raised Without Antibiotics,” or any of a number of others. The popularity of differing social media applications and networks also contributes to a consumer’s decision on whether to purchase and consume a particular food product or brand versus another.

Antimicrobials in Food 4th Edition 2020-front-COVER.The 4th edition of Antimicrobials in Food addresses these and a number of other concerns.”

Published in 2020 by CRC Press and edited by P. Michael Davidson, T. Matthew Taylor and Jairus R.D. David, more information on the book, its topics and numerous contributors can be viewed by clicking on this PDF overview of Antimicrobials in Food, 4th Edition

The 832-page Antimicrobials in Food ebook version will be published by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, on August 15 2020. Click on the link to order it.

Covid-19 and Consumer Attitudes toward Dining [Survey]

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A gift experiences website, Truly Experiences, ran detailed surveys on dining trends conducted with 1,000 U.S. and 300 U.K. consumers during May and April 2020. Its purpose was to give restauranteurs important insights into market and consumer trends impacting their business and to help them look toward the future.

Everyone has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lock-down measures and the hospitality industry has taken one of the hardest knocks of all. The findings are summarized as follows.

Key Highlights
● Three out of ten Britons planned to eat out immediately after lockdown restrictions were lifted.
● Millennials (Generation Y) and Generation Z were the likeliest to patronize re-opened bars and restaurants.
● One in five UK citizens expected restaurants to charge higher prices than before.
● One in four people in the United States survey expects higher restaurant prices.
● One in four US citizens said they would only feel comfortable eating out if a proven COVID-19 vaccination was found.
● Nine out of 100 US citizens do not plan on going out to a restaurant again this year.
● Over 50% of the United States citizens surveyed said they would only feel comfortable fining out if they saw the number of COVID-19 cases dropping.

Covid-19 and dining out chart

Cases Must Reduce for Restaurant Trade To Resume

In June 2020, all 50 U.S. states started reopening following lock-down. However, after some experienced a spike in new cases, the reopening process was paused with a few states actively reversing the action as they reverted to a previous higher state of restrictions. For one example, Texas closed its bars again. The changeability largely reflects attempts to balance financial and health concerns.

Like other countries around the world, the United States is attempting to restart the economy. However, governors are also feeling pressured to respond to a public that remains, largely, very anxious. The survey showed that the majority (51%) of US citizens would need to see coronavirus cases dropping before they’d be happy to eat out, but 42% said all they needed was for the lock-down to lift. Some 9% don’t expect to eat out until 2021.

After Covid-19 a different dining experience chart

A New Way Of Eating Out Required

A significant 85% of Americans expected diners to be seated farther apart and 67% believed that waiters would be required to wear gloves. Restrictions on dining party sizes were expected by 65%, and 25% thought food would have a higher price tag.

Other expectations included single-use menus, Plexiglass shields between booths and hand sanitizer on every table.

These statistics are a hopeful indication of US citizens’ enthusiasm to start eating out again. They reflect an understanding of the measures required by a post-pandemic world. The fact that just 28% needed a vaccine to be found before visiting a restaurant shows that most people feel the precautions would be enough.

An Age Divide In Opinion

The beliefs and responses of various age groups were differentiated and examined to provide additional insights into restaurants’ and bars’ target demographics.

The younger generation (42% of Gen Z) was more eager to eat out as soon as possible in the UK, while older citizens (19% of Gen X and Baby Boomers) were a little more hesitant.

Similarly, just 8% of Gen Z believed they’d have to wait until 2021 to go out compared to 33% of British Gen X and Baby Boomer responders. The opposite situation was seen in the US, where 13% of the 18-24 age group expected to eat out immediately following lock-down, as opposed to just 21% of the 55-64-year-olds.

While the same percentage of Britons and Americans said they’d dine out if they could (13%), the population distributions were quite different. In the UK, the high and low percentages of younger and older people balanced each other out, while in the US the numbers in the two groups were quite similar – although the older citizens were still twice as eager.

Core Survey Takeaways

United Kingdom eateries should, in theory, be targeting the younger generations for most of their revenue. In the United States, the picture was a little different; young adults have a higher spend per head but were less likely to go out immediately.

Now with the reescalation of lockdown in some states and pausing on reopening in others, the situation may have changed. Since revenue from takeout orders is more secure, restauranteurs should continue trying to expand their range and price points on these items.

Additionally, when they do reopen, venues should expect design changes to incorporate social distancing.

Guest Blog Contributor:

Truly Experiences
Tower Bridge Business Complex, 100 Clements Rd
Bermondsey, London SE16 4DG
United Kingdom
+44 203 890 3248

Truly Experiences is an online gift experience company aiming to divert the gift-giving market from material items to activities and memories. Since 2012, they’ve been creating dreams-come-true experiences for customers all around the world.

Munzing MAGRABAR Clean Label Defoamers

Posted on:May 8, 2020

Munzing MAGRABAR 2020 Presentation first slide

Munzing MAGRABAR® Clean Label Defoamers
[Supplier Solutions – Created & Sponsored by Munzing]

Food is naturally foamy and creates a challenge for you as you transform it into what is placed on tables every evening. MAGRABAR® defoamers give you Clean Label options to do what you do best.  This technical presentation was provided by Munzing May, 2020.

For more information, contact Jennifer Dingman, at +1 (989) 488-7085 or by email at jdingman@munzing.US,

MAGRABAR® Clean Label Defoamers Video [Recorded April 2020, Password not required.]

Munzing MAGRABAR® Clean Label Defoamers Presentation PDF

A Global Food Forums R&D Academy Presentation

Global Food Forums corporate logo - large


On the Cutting Edge of Fruit Juice Sugar Reduction

Posted on:December 17, 2019

Israeli-based startup Better Juice recently announced that it was teaming up with Brazilian Juice producer Citrosuco SA to establish a pilot plant that will ultimately lead to the production of reduced sugar orange juice. Better Juice Ltd. has developed innovative new enzymatic technology that reduces the load of simple sugars in orange juice.

The patent-pending enzymatic technology uses all-natural ingredients to convert monosaccharides and disaccharides (fructose, glucose and sucrose) into prebiotic and other non-digestible fibers and sugars as the juice passes through a continuous flow column. The resulting reduced sugar juice may taste a bit less sweet but have a more intense fruity flavor.

Better Juice conducted several trials with different beverage companies and succeeded in reducing sugars in orange juice from 30% up to 80%.

“This collaboration with Citrosuco is a vote of confidence in Better Juice’s leading technology and its capabilities for reducing sugar in orange juice,” said Dr. Eran Blachinsky, founder and CEO of Better Juice in an interview with Israeli Innovation News NoCamels ( “We’re excited to work with this strategic partner and help create juices with low sugar—the latest frontier in sugar reduction.”

Sugar reduction currently relies on the addition of high-intensity sweeteners. This new process uses the natural enzymatic activity in non-GMO microorganisms to convert a portion of the simple fructose, glucose and sucrose sugars into fibers and other non-digestible natural sugars, while preserving the full complement of vitamins and other nutrients inherent in the fruit. The technology was developed in collaboration with Hebrew University in Rehovot, Israel as well as seed investment and support from The Kitchen Hub food tech incubator.

Benefits of the enzymatic sugar reduction technology are many, including:
• Ideal for all types of fruit juices and sugars: Sucrose, glucose and fructose
• Adds dietary fibers
• Maintains juice properties, such as smell and taste (except for reducing sweetness)
• Has minimal impact on final juice cost
• Offers flexible capacity
• Integrates easily into existing manufacturer facilities
• Easy and inexpensive to operate and maintain without requiring skilled staff
• Is environmentally friendly since all waste materials are food grade and can be used as feed

Better Juice conducted several trials with different beverage companies and succeeded in reducing sugars in orange juice from 30% up to 80%. The start-up can now provide proof of concept for orange juice.

Product development and applications general manager of Citrosuco, Alex Marie Schuermans, expressed his optimism about his company’s collaboration with Better Juice in an interview with NoCamels: “We have been seeking an orange juice sugar reduction technology for some time. Better Juice’s solution holds a lot of promise and we are confident that by combining their technology with our know-how, we can accelerate production of the first sugar-reduced orange juice.”

Paula Frank
Online Content Manager

Milk and Meat Production Without the Environmental Impact?

Posted on:December 16, 2019

Consumers’ concept of clean labeling has expanded to include the environmental impact of foods and how they’re produced. But, are consumers ready for scientists to begin tampering with the ecological makeup of cows’ digestive system?

How feasible is trapping or reducing methane gas from cows? Technology and consumer acceptance of such will reveal the answer in time.

An article on BBC’s online forum ( titled “The Cows that Could Help Fight Climate Change,” by Geoff Watts, published August 7, 2019, presents a scientific study taking place at New Zealand’s farming science research institute—AgResearch, which is striving to reduce methane gas production from cows. Researchers developed a vaccine targeting methanogens, or those microbes that produce methane. The vaccine produces antibodies in the cows’ saliva and rumen that specifically target microbes that negatively affect the environment.

But how toxic is methane gas to the environment? “Methane is one of the most egregious of greenhouse gases, roughly 25 times more potent at trapping heat than carbon dioxide,” said Watts. In one estimate, livestock reportedly contributes “14% of all greenhouse emissions from human activity.” Aside from carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, methane accounts for more than a third of emissions from agriculture. “The average ruminant produces 250-500 liters of methane a day,” adds Watts, mostly from burping, with a small amount coming from the other end. Globally, livestock emit the methane equivalent of “3.1 gigatons of carbon dioxide …annually.”

Methane gas is produced when the food cows and sheep eat ferments after being decomposed by anaerobic microbes, classified as archaea. This class of microbes account for approximately 3% of the total number of microbes found in the rumen of these animals.

Researcher Sinead Leahy, microbiologist at AgResearch and on secondary assignment to the New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Center, used DNA sequencing to understand the role different microbes play in ruminant digestion. Leahy then used gene sequencing to develop a vaccine that produces antibodies specifically targeting methanogens.

To date, only a small number of animals have been given the vaccine. Measuring methane content involves placing the animal in a sealed respiratory chamber allowing only for fresh air flow. “Stale air” is measured for methane content. “But definitive proof that vaccination cuts the amount of methane belched out by cows is still lacking,” said Watts.

Several other methods of methane gas reduction from cows have been suggested. Eileen Wall, head of research at Scotland’s Rural College, explains that cows’ methane output varies, partly due to genetic differences She suggests that selective breeding could reduce methane gas, not in isolation, “but as part of a wider breeding program to develop healthier and more efficient sheep and cows—both these attributes also reduce the greenhouse gases generated per unit of meat and milk.”

Wall noted that the environmental footprint of milk and meat production has already dropped by 20% over the past 20 years. How this has occurred or been measured is not mentioned. But, Wall suggests that breeding lower methane producing cows would only reduce that statistic further. Yet, the downside of this method is that it could be costly and time consuming.

Other proposed methods of methane reduction involve altering the animals’ diet, so that food in the rumen is less prone to decomposition and fermentation via archaea microbes. Phil Garnsworthy, a specialist in dairy cow nutrition at the University of Nottingham, suggested that maize-based sileage might drop methane production by 10%.

Liam Sinclair, researcher of rumen metabolism at Harper Adams University, Shropshire, UK, suggested that legumes and oils such as linseed and soy oil could cut down on the fiber a cow eats, and thus the methane it produces.

Seaweed has also been suggested, as have additives like ionophores, which are classified as antibiotics and banned in the EU. Another additive, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), could lower the efficiency of the chemical pathway archaea uses to convert carbon into methane, thereby reducing methane gas production by 30%, hopes the company that produces the additive, added Watts. Probiotics may be another option, but the delivery system is in question when animals feed on grass. And, my all-time favorite suggestion is “fitting cows with burp-collecting backpacks.”

What it all comes down to is this…regardless of the method used in the reduction of methane production, are consumers ready to eat dairy products or meat from cows with rumen that have been ecologically altered? Changing the type of feed might be the least manipulative method of reducing methane gas production from cows and sheep, but as a food scientist attuned to flavor manipulation, I wonder if some of the suggested feed changes might result in detectable flavor changes.

Those seeking clean labeled foods want products with minimal environmental impact, but will the tradeoffs such as vaccines for methanogen antibody production or genetic breeding be acceptable? Personally, I vote for the cow backpack methane gas collectors.

Paula Frank
Online Content Manager


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